1.更新/升级命令

  • sudo apt-get更新 : 简而言之,apt-get更新实际上不会安装新版本的软件。相反,它会更新软件包列表以进行需要升级的软件包的升级,以及刚刚进入存储库的新软件包。
  • sudo apt-get升级 : 如果APT通过apt-get更新了解了这些新版本,则将获取计算机上现有软件包的新版本。必须首先执行更新,以便apt-get知道有新版本的软件包可用。
  • 须藤apt-get dist-upgrade: 将完成由 apt-get升级,而且它还将智能处理依赖关系,因此它可能会删除过时的软件包或添加新的软件包。 

注意:我们可以将命令与&& signs, such as:

  • sudo apt-get更新&&须藤apt-get dist-upgrade


2.安装并启动SSH服务

  • sudo apt-get install openssh-server
  • sudo服务ssh启动

使用netstat命令验证:
-t:tcp
-u:udp
-l:听
-p:程序/ pid
-n:数字

[email protected]:~$ netstat -tulpn
(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info
 will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -               
tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      -               
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:68              0.0.0.0:*                           -               
[email protected]:~$ 

3.允许Root登录并设置Root密码

[email protected]:~$ sudo view /etc/ssh/sshd_config 
PermitRootLogin yes
[email protected]:~$ sudo service ssh restart
设置root密码
[email protected]:~$ sudo su - root
[email protected]:~# passwd root
Enter new UNIX password: 
Retype new UNIX password: 
passwd: password updated successfully

4.配置DNS和IP


[email protected]:~# view /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available  上  your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

source /etc/network/interfaces.d/*

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto ens160
iface ens160 inet static
        address 172.27.3.3
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        network 172.27.3.0
        broadcast 172.27.3.255
        gateway 172.27.3.1
        dns-nameserver 8.8.8.8
        dns-search foo.org.bar.co
[email protected]:~# service networking force-reload
[email protected]:~# service networking restart


编辑DNS配置文件:
/etc/systemd/resolved.conf 
找到“ DNS”部分,然后添加您的DNS服务器IP地址:
DNS= 1.1.1.1 8.8.4.4 192.168.2.1 

5.配置apt源
[email protected]:~# view /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
[email protected]:~# apt update
此处已设置阿里云源码

6.更改时区

检查时区
[email protected]:~# date -R
Thu, 29 Nov 2018 03:53:49 -0500
修改时区
[email protected]:~# cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime
校验
[email protected]:~# date -R
Thu, 29 Nov 2018 16:58:15 +0800

注意:命令  ‘timedatectl’

7.修复损坏的Ubuntu,无需重新安装

$ sudo rm /var/lib/apt/lists/lock
$ sudo rm /var/lib/dpkg/lock
$ sudo rm /var/lib/dpkg/lock-frontend
$ sudo dpkg --configure -a
$ sudo apt clean
$ sudo apt更新--fix-missing
$ sudo apt install -f
$ sudo dpkg --configure -a
$ sudo apt upgrade
$ sudo apt dist-upgrade

最后一步,“ sudo重新启动”

8.检查Ubuntu版本/ CPU /发行信息

[email protected]:~# getconf LONG_BIT
64

[email protected]:~#  lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS
Release:        18.04
Codename:       bionic

[email protected]:~# uname -a 的Linux  wan 4.15.0-29-generic #31-Ubuntu SMP Tue Jul 17 13:11:22 UTC 2017 x86_64

[email protected]:~# cat /proc/cpuinfo 
processor       : 0
vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
cpu family      : 6
model           : 142
model name      : Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4300U CPU @ 2.10GHz
stepping        : 9
microcode       : 0x4e
cpu MHz         : 2712.050
cache size      : 3072 KB
physical id     : 0
siblings        : 2
core id         : 0
cpu cores       : 2
apicid          : 0
initial apicid  : 0
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 22
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon nopl xtopology tsc_reliable nonstop_tsc cpuid pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch cpuid_fault invpcid_single pti fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 avx2 smep bmi2 invpcid mpx rdseed adx smap clflushopt xsaveopt xsavec xsaves arat
bugs            : cpu_meltdown spectre_v1 spectre_v2 spec_store_bypass
bogomips        : 5424.10
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes   : 43 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:

processor       : 1
vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
cpu family      : 6
model           : 142
model name      : Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4300U CPU @ 2.10GHz
stepping        : 9
microcode       : 0x4e
cpu MHz         : 2712.050
cache size      : 3072 KB
physical id     : 0
siblings        : 2
core id         : 1
cpu cores       : 2
apicid          : 1
initial apicid  : 1
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 22
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc arch_perfmon nopl xtopology tsc_reliable nonstop_tsc cpuid pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch cpuid_fault invpcid_single pti fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 avx2 smep bmi2 invpcid mpx rdseed adx smap clflushopt xsaveopt xsavec xsaves arat
bugs            : cpu_meltdown spectre_v1 spectre_v2 spec_store_bypass
bogomips        : 5424.10
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes   : 43 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:


9.在Ubuntu上安装和配置Samba服务器

9.1安装Samba

[email protected]:~# apt-get install samba

9.2更改配置文件

[email protected]:~# vi /etc/samba/smb.conf

在smb.conf的末尾附加以下配置

[share]
        path = /Deepinfar
        available=yes
        browseable = yes
        public = yes
        writeable = yes
        guest ok = no

9.3将root用户添加到Samba用户列表

[email protected]:~# smbpasswd -a root

9.4重新启动Samba服务并从Windows测试

[email protected]:~# smbd start

在Windows中,您可以访问以下位置的共享文件夹 \\ 192.168.2.102 \ share \ 使用root用户名和密码。

10.禁用  apt-daily.service和apt-daily-upgrade.service

我的一个云VM的CPU间歇性过高,导致停机问题。 从syslog的显示来看,恰恰是在时间上,每日apt下载活动导致系统CPU容量过高和系统服务崩溃。

[email protected]:/var/log$more /var/log/syslog


Aug 30 17:39:08 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 systemd[1]: Started Clean php session files.
Aug 30 17:53:27 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 systemd[1]: Starting Daily apt download activities...
Aug 30 18:06:08 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 mysqld[1321]: 2019-08-30 18:05:52 20017 [Warning] Aborted connection 20017 to db: 'wp_db' user: 'wp_db_user' host: 'localhost' (Got timeout reading communication packets)
Aug 30 18:07:34 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 mysqld[1321]: 2019-08-30 18:07:10 20015 [Warning] Aborted connection 20015 to db: 'wp_db' user: 'wp_db_user' host: 'localhost' (Got timeout reading communication packets)
Aug 30 18:13:58 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 systemd-networkd[687]: ens4: Could not set DHCPv4 address: Connection timed out
Aug 30 18:28:14 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 systemd-networkd[687]: ens4: Failed
Aug 30 18:46:47 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 mysqld[1321]: 2019-08-30 18:19:37 20014 [Warning] Aborted connection 20014 to db: 'wp_db' user: 'wp_db_user' host: 'localhost' (Got timeout reading communication packets)
Aug 30 19:01:31 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 mysqld[1321]: 2019-08-30 18:21:29 20016 [Warning] Aborted connection 20016 to db: 'wp_db' user: 'wp_db_user' host: 'localhost' (Got timeout reading communication packets)
Aug 30 19:25:22 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 kernel: [168290.564611] ip invoked oom-killer: gfp_mask=0x14200ca(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE), nodemask=(null), order=0, oom_score_adj=0
Aug 30 19:25:22 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 kernel: [168290.564614] ip cpuset=/ mems_allowed=0
Aug 30 19:25:22 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 kernel: [168290.564626] CPU: 0 PID: 22356 Comm: ip Not tainted 4.15.0-1040-gcp #42-Ubuntu
Aug 30 19:25:22 ubuntu18niginxmariadb2 kernel: [168290.564627] Hardware name: Google Google Compute Engine/Google Compute Engine, BIOS Google 01/01/2011

根据systemctl的输出,我们可以找到两个相关的服务,apt-daily-upgrade.timer和apt-daily.timer


[email protected]:/var/log$ systemctl
.....
.....
timers.target                     loaded active active    Timers                   
apt-daily-upgrade.timer           loaded active waiting   Daily apt upgrade and clea
apt-daily.timer                   loaded active waiting   Daily apt download activit
fstrim.timer                      loaded active waiting   Discard unused blocks  上 ce
motd-news.timer                   loaded active waiting   Message of the Day       
phpsessionclean.timer             loaded active waiting   Clean PHP session files ev
systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer      loaded active waiting   Daily Cleanup of Temporary

LOAD   = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
SUB    = The low-level unit activation state, values depend  上  unit type.

176 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.

[email protected]:/var/log$ systemctl | grep timer
timers.target                  loaded active active    Timers                                                                       
apt-daily-upgrade.timer        loaded active waiting   Daily apt upgrade and clean activities                                       
apt-daily.timer                loaded active waiting   Daily apt download activities                                                
fstrim.timer                   loaded active waiting   Discard unused blocks  上 ce a week                                            
motd-news.timer                loaded active waiting   Message of the Day                                                           
phpsessionclean.timer          loaded active waiting   Clean PHP session files every 30 mins                                        
systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer   loaded active waiting   Daily Cleanup of Temporary Directories                                       
[email protected]:/var/log$ 


我确实知道这两项服务可确保我的Ubuntu软件包保持更新和安全。但是我更关心系统可靠性。在这种情况下,我更希望禁用这两项服务,并且我将在适当的时候使用命令“sudo apt更新& sudo apt -y upgrade ”。

这是禁用这两个计时器和服务的四个命令。

sudo systemctl disable apt-daily.service
sudo systemctl disable apt-daily.timer

sudo systemctl disable apt-daily-upgrade.timer
sudo systemctl disable apt-daily-upgrade.service
sudo systemctl mask apt-daily.service
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
[email protected]:/var/log$ sudo systemctl disable apt-daily.service
[email protected]:/var/log$ sudo systemctl disable apt-daily.timer
Removed /etc/systemd/system/timers.target.wants/apt-daily.timer.
[email protected]:/var/log$ 
[email protected]:/var/log$ sudo systemctl disable apt-daily-upgrade.timer
Removed /etc/systemd/system/timers.target.wants/apt-daily-upgrade.timer.
[email protected]:/var/log$ sudo systemctl disable apt-daily-upgrade.service
[email protected]:/var/log$ 
[email protected]:~$ sudo systemctl mask apt-daily.service
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/apt-daily.service → /dev/null.
[email protected]:~$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
[email protected]:~$ sudo systemctl status apt-daily.service
● apt-daily.service
   Loaded: masked (/dev/null; bad)
   Active: inactive (dead)
[email protected]:~$ 

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